Corso Basic, Elenco comandi Basic V3.5 Commodore 16 C116 Plus4 Plus-4 Plus/4 116, elenco completo comandi funzioni istruzioni variabili riservate linguaggio basic

Elenco completo comandi Basic V3.5 del Commodore 16, 116 e Plus/4

Ecco la lista completa dei comandi, delle funzioni e delle variabili riservate del Basic V3.5 del Commodore 16, C-116 e Commodore Plus/4. Questo è un semplice compendio per ricordare tutti i comandi, le istruzioni e le funzioni, quando già si sa come utilizzarli!

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Rispetto al BASIC V2 del Commodore 64, il BASIC v3.5 del Commodore 16, 116 e Plus/4 ha molti più comandi. In casa Commodore, la vera completezza si ha con il BASIC V7 del Commodore 128, dotato di moltissimi comandi.

ABSReturns the absolute value of a numberFunction, numerical
ANDReturns true if both conditions are trueOperator, logical
ASCReturns the numerical value of a charFunction, numerical
ATNReturns the arctangent of a numberFunction, numerical
AUTOTurns on automatic line numbering when writing a programCommand
BACKUPCopies an entire diskette to another on a dual drive systemInstruction/command
BOXDraws a box, parallelogram or rectangle at specified position on screenInstruction/command
CHARPositions the text cursor and displays characters on the bitmap screenInstruction/command
CHR$Returns the character corresponding to the numberFunction, string
CIRCLEDraws a circle, ellipse or a regular polygon on the bitmap screenInstruction/command
CLOSECloses a fileInstruction/command
CLRDeletes variables arrays, data, …Instruction/command
CMDChanges the data output to other peripheralInstruction/command
COLLECTChecks and repairs the file system of a disk, frees inaccessible disk spaceInstruction/command
COLORSelects colors for screen border, foreground, background and charactersInstruction/command
CONTResumes execution of a BASIC programCommand
COPYCopies files from one drive to another in a dual disk drive or within a single driveInstruction/command
COSReturns the cosine of an angle (rad)Function, numerical
DATAStores constant information in the program codeInstruction/command

DECReturns the decimal value of a number specified as hexadecimalFunction, numerical
DEF FNDefines a user-defined functionInstruction
DELETEDeletes lines of a BASIC program in the specified rangeCommand
DIMAllocates space in array memory for a new arrayInstruction/command
DIRECTORYDisplays the contents of the disk directory on the screenInstruction/command
DLOADLoads a BASIC program from diskInstruction/command
DOProgam loop start (DO/LOOP/WHILE/UNTIL/EXIT)Instruction/command
DRAWDisplays lines and points on the bitmap screenInstruction/command
DSGets the numeric code from the current diskStatus_stringReserved variable
DS$Gets the most recent error/status code from a disk deviceReserved variable
DSAVESaves a BASIC program to a disk fileInstruction/command
ELReturns the line number of the most recent errorReserved variable
ENDEnds the processing of the current programInstruction/command
ERReturns the most recent error numberReserved variable
ERR$Returns the error message corresponding to an error numberReserved variable
EXITProgam loop escape (DO/LOOP/WHILE/UNTIL/EXIT)Instruction/command, special
EXP“e” with the power given by the argumentFunction, numerical
FNExecutes a function defined by DEF FNFunction, numerical, special
FORProgram loop start (FOR … TO … STEP … NEXT)Instruction/command
FREReturns the number of unused bytes of BASIC RAMFunction, numerical, special

GETReads one or more chars from the keyboardInstruction
GET#Reads single characters from the specified deviceInstruction/command, special
GETKEYReceives input data from the keyboard, one character at a timeInstruction
GO TOJumps to a line numberInstruction/command
GOSUBJumps to a subroutine … RETURNInstruction/command
GOTOJumps to a line numberInstruction/command
GRAPHICSelects a screen display (text, bitmap or split-screen bitmap)Instruction/command
GSHAPERetrieves the text-string variable stored by SSHAPEFunction, string
HEADERFormats a disketteInstruction/command
HELPHighlights the line where the error occurredInstruction/command
HEX$Returns a string containing a hexadecimal represention of a given numberFunction, string
IFTests a condition IF … THEN or IF … GOTOInstruction/command
INPUTReads data from the keyboardInstruction
INPUT#Reads data from a file stored on peripheral deviceInstruction
INSTRFinds the location of a substring in a stringFunction, numerical
INTRounds a numberFunction, numerical
JOYReturns a value indicating the state of a joystickFunction, numerical
KEYLists or redefines the string assigned to a function keyInstruction/command
LEFT$Left chars of a stringFunction, string
LENReturns the number of characters in a stringFunction, numerical

LETAssigns values in a variableInstruction/command
LISTDisplays the BASIC program in memoryInstruction/command
LOADLoads a programInstruction/command
LOCATEPositions the bitmap pixel cursor on the screenInstruction/command
LOGNatural logarithm with the basis eFunction, numerical
LOOPProgam loop end (DO/LOOP/WHILE/UNTIL/EXIT)Instruction/command, special
MID$Inner chars of a stringFunction, string
MONITOREnters the Commodore machine language monitorCommand
NEWClears RAM and programInstruction/command
NEXTProgram loop end (FOR … TO … STEP … NEXT)Instruction/command
NOTReverses true to falseOperator, logical
ONContruct ON … GOTO, ON … GOSUBInstruction/command
OPENOpens a file or a channelInstruction/command
ORReturns true if one or both conditions are trueOperator, logical
PAINTFills area on the bitmap screen with colorInstruction/command
PEEKReturns the memory contentFunction, numerical
POKEChanges the content of any memory addressInstruction/command
POSDetermines the actual position of the cursorFunction, numerical, special
PRINTPrints data to the current output deviceInstruction/command
PRINT USINGPrints an expression with a specific formatInstruction/command
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PRINT#Stores data in a fileInstruction/command
PUDEFRedefines symbols in PRINT USING statementsInstruction/command
RCLRReturns a the color assigned to a graphic screen elementFunction, numerical
RDOTReturns information about the pixel cursorFunction, numerical
READReads constant values from DATAInstruction
RENAMEChanges the name of a file on diskInstruction/command
RENUMBERRenumber lines of a BASIC programCommand
RESTOREClears the pointer of the next DATA valueInstruction/command
RESUMEDefines where the program will continue after an error has been trappedInstruction/command
RETURNFinishes a subroutine: GOSUB …  RETURNInstruction/command
RGRReturns a value indicating the current graphic modeFunction, numerical
RIGHT$Right chars of a stringFunction, string
RLUMReturns the luminance assigned to a graphic screen elementFunction, numerical
RNDGenerates a random floating point numberFunction, numerical
RUNStarts a programInstruction/command
SAVESaves a programInstruction/command
SCALESets the relative size of the images on the bitmap screenInstruction/command
SCNCLRClears the screenInstruction/command
SCRATCHDeletes a file from the disk directoryInstruction/command

SGNReturns the sign of a number (-1, 0, 1)Function, numerical
SINReturns the sine of an angle (rad)Function, numerical
SOUNDOutputs sound effects and musical notesInstruction/command
SPC(Sets a number of spaces into a PRINT outputFunction, string
SQRCalculates square root of a numberFunction, numerical
SSHAPESaves a a shape (a rectangular region of the bitmap screen) to a string variableInstruction/command
STGets I/O status byteReserved variable
STEPProgram loop increment/decrement (FOR … TO … STEP … NEXT)Instruction/command, special
STOPBreaks a programInstruction/command
STR$Converts numerical values or variables into a stringFunction, string
SYSCalls an assembly language subroutineInstruction/command
TAB(Sets the cursor column into a PRINT outputFunction, string
TANReturns the tangent for a given angle (rad)Function, numerical
THENTests a condition IF … THEN (if true)Instruction/command, special
TIGets the system time (seconds/60)Reserved variable
TI$Gets or Sets the system time (HHMMSS)Reserved variable
TOProgram loop target (FOR … TO … STEP … NEXT)Instruction/command, special
TRAPDetects and handles program errors while a BASIC program is runningInstruction
TROFFTurns off error tracing mode, while debuggingInstruction/command
TRONTurns on error tracing mode, while debuggingInstruction/command

UNTILProgam loop condition (DO/LOOP/WHILE/UNTIL/EXIT)Instruction/command, special
USINGSee PRINT USINGInstruction/command, special
USRCalls an assembly language subroutine with argumentFunction, numerical/string
VALReturns the numerical value of a stringFunction, numerical
VERIFYVerifies a saved programInstruction/command
VOLDefines output level of soundInstruction/command
WAITWaits for a memory location to assume specific valuesInstruction/command
WHILEProgam loop condition (DO/LOOP/WHILE/UNTIL/EXIT)Instruction/command, special
+SumOperator, numerical/string
SubtractionOperator, numerical
*MultiplicationOperator, numerical
/DivisionOperator, numerical
^ExponentOperator, numerical
GreaterOperator, logical
=EqualOperator, logical
LessOperator, logical
π (pi)3.1415926…Function, numerical, special

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